Interact

Bike Sharing in the Bay Area

We end this chapter by using all the methods we have learned to examine a new and large dataset. We will also introduce map_table, a powerful visualization tool.

The Bay Area Bike Share service published a dataset describing every bicycle rental from September 2014 to August 2015 in their system. There were 354,152 rentals in all. The columns are:

  • An ID for the rental
  • Duration of the rental, in seconds
  • Start date
  • Name of the Start Station and code for Start Terminal
  • Name of the End Station and code for End Terminal
  • A serial number for the bike
  • Subscriber type and zip code
trips = Table.read_table(path_data + 'trip.csv')
trips
Trip ID Duration Start Date Start Station Start Terminal End Date End Station End Terminal Bike # Subscriber Type Zip Code
913460 765 8/31/2015 23:26 Harry Bridges Plaza (Ferry Building) 50 8/31/2015 23:39 San Francisco Caltrain (Townsend at 4th) 70 288 Subscriber 2139
913459 1036 8/31/2015 23:11 San Antonio Shopping Center 31 8/31/2015 23:28 Mountain View City Hall 27 35 Subscriber 95032
913455 307 8/31/2015 23:13 Post at Kearny 47 8/31/2015 23:18 2nd at South Park 64 468 Subscriber 94107
913454 409 8/31/2015 23:10 San Jose City Hall 10 8/31/2015 23:17 San Salvador at 1st 8 68 Subscriber 95113
913453 789 8/31/2015 23:09 Embarcadero at Folsom 51 8/31/2015 23:22 Embarcadero at Sansome 60 487 Customer 9069
913452 293 8/31/2015 23:07 Yerba Buena Center of the Arts (3rd @ Howard) 68 8/31/2015 23:12 San Francisco Caltrain (Townsend at 4th) 70 538 Subscriber 94118
913451 896 8/31/2015 23:07 Embarcadero at Folsom 51 8/31/2015 23:22 Embarcadero at Sansome 60 363 Customer 92562
913450 255 8/31/2015 22:16 Embarcadero at Sansome 60 8/31/2015 22:20 Steuart at Market 74 470 Subscriber 94111
913449 126 8/31/2015 22:12 Beale at Market 56 8/31/2015 22:15 Temporary Transbay Terminal (Howard at Beale) 55 439 Subscriber 94130
913448 932 8/31/2015 21:57 Post at Kearny 47 8/31/2015 22:12 South Van Ness at Market 66 472 Subscriber 94702

... (354142 rows omitted)

We’ll focus only on the free trips, which are trips that last less than 1800 seconds (half an hour). There is a charge for longer trips.

The histogram below shows that most of the trips took around 10 minutes (600 seconds) or so. Very few took near 30 minutes (1800 seconds), possibly because people try to return the bikes before the cutoff time so as not to have to pay.

commute = trips.where('Duration', are.below(1800))
commute.hist('Duration', unit='Second')

png

We can get more detail by specifying a larger number of bins. But the overall shape doesn’t change much.

commute.hist('Duration', bins=60, unit='Second')

png

Exploring the Data with group and pivot

We can use group to identify the most highly used Start Station:

starts = commute.group('Start Station').sort('count', descending=True)
starts
Start Station count
San Francisco Caltrain (Townsend at 4th) 25858
San Francisco Caltrain 2 (330 Townsend) 21523
Harry Bridges Plaza (Ferry Building) 15543
Temporary Transbay Terminal (Howard at Beale) 14298
2nd at Townsend 13674
Townsend at 7th 13579
Steuart at Market 13215
Embarcadero at Sansome 12842
Market at 10th 11523
Market at Sansome 11023

... (60 rows omitted)

The largest number of trips started at the Caltrain Station on Townsend and 4th in San Francisco. People take the train into the city, and then use a shared bike to get to their next destination.

The group method can also be used to classify the rentals by both Start Station and End Station.

commute.group(['Start Station', 'End Station'])
Start Station End Station count
2nd at Folsom 2nd at Folsom 54
2nd at Folsom 2nd at South Park 295
2nd at Folsom 2nd at Townsend 437
2nd at Folsom 5th at Howard 113
2nd at Folsom Beale at Market 127
2nd at Folsom Broadway St at Battery St 67
2nd at Folsom Civic Center BART (7th at Market) 47
2nd at Folsom Clay at Battery 240
2nd at Folsom Commercial at Montgomery 128
2nd at Folsom Davis at Jackson 28

... (1619 rows omitted)

Fifty-four trips both started and ended at the station on 2nd at Folsom. A much large number (437) were between 2nd at Folsom and 2nd at Townsend.

The pivot method does the same classification but displays its results in a contingency table that shows all possible combinations of Start and End Stations, even though some of them didn’t correspond to any trips. Remember that the first argument of a pivot statement specifies the column labels of the pivot table; the second argument labels the rows.

There is a train station as well as a Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) station near Beale at Market, explaining the high number of trips that start and end there.

commute.pivot('Start Station', 'End Station')
End Station 2nd at Folsom 2nd at South Park 2nd at Townsend 5th at Howard Adobe on Almaden Arena Green / SAP Center Beale at Market Broadway St at Battery St California Ave Caltrain Station Castro Street and El Camino Real Civic Center BART (7th at Market) Clay at Battery Commercial at Montgomery Cowper at University Davis at Jackson Embarcadero at Bryant Embarcadero at Folsom Embarcadero at Sansome Embarcadero at Vallejo Evelyn Park and Ride Franklin at Maple Golden Gate at Polk Grant Avenue at Columbus Avenue Harry Bridges Plaza (Ferry Building) Howard at 2nd Japantown MLK Library Market at 10th Market at 4th Market at Sansome Mechanics Plaza (Market at Battery) Mezes Park Mountain View Caltrain Station Mountain View City Hall Palo Alto Caltrain Station Park at Olive Paseo de San Antonio Post at Kearny Powell Street BART Powell at Post (Union Square) Redwood City Caltrain Station Redwood City Medical Center Redwood City Public Library Rengstorff Avenue / California Street Ryland Park SJSU - San Salvador at 9th SJSU 4th at San Carlos San Antonio Caltrain Station San Antonio Shopping Center San Francisco Caltrain (Townsend at 4th) San Francisco Caltrain 2 (330 Townsend) San Francisco City Hall San Jose City Hall San Jose Civic Center San Jose Diridon Caltrain Station San Mateo County Center San Pedro Square San Salvador at 1st Santa Clara County Civic Center Santa Clara at Almaden South Van Ness at Market Spear at Folsom St James Park Stanford in Redwood City Steuart at Market Temporary Transbay Terminal (Howard at Beale) Townsend at 7th University and Emerson Washington at Kearny Yerba Buena Center of the Arts (3rd @ Howard)
2nd at Folsom 54 190 554 107 0 0 40 21 0 0 44 78 54 0 9 77 32 41 14 0 0 11 30 416 53 0 0 169 114 302 33 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 121 88 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 694 445 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 57 0 0 39 237 342 0 17 31
2nd at South Park 295 164 71 180 0 0 208 85 0 0 112 87 160 0 37 56 178 83 116 0 0 57 73 574 500 0 0 139 199 1633 119 0 0 0 0 0 0 299 84 113 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 559 480 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 66 152 0 0 374 429 143 0 63 209
2nd at Townsend 437 151 185 92 0 0 608 350 0 0 80 329 168 0 386 361 658 506 254 0 0 27 315 2607 295 0 0 110 225 845 177 0 0 0 0 0 0 120 100 141 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 905 299 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 72 508 0 0 2349 784 417 0 57 166
5th at Howard 113 177 148 83 0 0 59 130 0 0 203 76 129 0 30 57 49 166 54 0 0 85 78 371 478 0 0 303 158 168 90 0 0 0 0 0 0 93 183 169 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 690 1859 48 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 116 102 0 0 182 750 200 0 43 267
Adobe on Almaden 0 0 0 0 11 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 16 0 0 0 0 0 19 23 265 0 20 4 5 10 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arena Green / SAP Center 0 0 0 0 7 64 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 16 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 6 20 7 0 56 12 38 259 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Beale at Market 127 79 183 59 0 0 59 661 0 0 201 75 101 0 247 178 38 590 165 0 0 54 435 57 72 0 0 286 236 163 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 49 227 179 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 640 269 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 243 128 0 0 16 167 35 0 64 45
Broadway St at Battery St 67 89 279 119 0 0 1022 110 0 0 62 283 226 0 191 198 79 231 35 0 0 5 70 168 49 0 0 32 97 341 214 0 0 0 0 0 0 169 71 218 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 685 438 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 106 0 0 344 748 50 0 79 47
California Ave Caltrain Station 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 38 1 0 0 0 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 192 40 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 17 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 57 0 0
Castro Street and El Camino Real 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 931 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 4 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

... (60 rows omitted)

We can also use pivot to find the shortest time of the rides between Start and End Stations. Here pivot has been given Duration as the optional values argument, and min as the function which to perform on the values in each cell.

commute.pivot('Start Station', 'End Station', 'Duration', min)
End Station 2nd at Folsom 2nd at South Park 2nd at Townsend 5th at Howard Adobe on Almaden Arena Green / SAP Center Beale at Market Broadway St at Battery St California Ave Caltrain Station Castro Street and El Camino Real Civic Center BART (7th at Market) Clay at Battery Commercial at Montgomery Cowper at University Davis at Jackson Embarcadero at Bryant Embarcadero at Folsom Embarcadero at Sansome Embarcadero at Vallejo Evelyn Park and Ride Franklin at Maple Golden Gate at Polk Grant Avenue at Columbus Avenue Harry Bridges Plaza (Ferry Building) Howard at 2nd Japantown MLK Library Market at 10th Market at 4th Market at Sansome Mechanics Plaza (Market at Battery) Mezes Park Mountain View Caltrain Station Mountain View City Hall Palo Alto Caltrain Station Park at Olive Paseo de San Antonio Post at Kearny Powell Street BART Powell at Post (Union Square) Redwood City Caltrain Station Redwood City Medical Center Redwood City Public Library Rengstorff Avenue / California Street Ryland Park SJSU - San Salvador at 9th SJSU 4th at San Carlos San Antonio Caltrain Station San Antonio Shopping Center San Francisco Caltrain (Townsend at 4th) San Francisco Caltrain 2 (330 Townsend) San Francisco City Hall San Jose City Hall San Jose Civic Center San Jose Diridon Caltrain Station San Mateo County Center San Pedro Square San Salvador at 1st Santa Clara County Civic Center Santa Clara at Almaden South Van Ness at Market Spear at Folsom St James Park Stanford in Redwood City Steuart at Market Temporary Transbay Terminal (Howard at Beale) Townsend at 7th University and Emerson Washington at Kearny Yerba Buena Center of the Arts (3rd @ Howard)
2nd at Folsom 61 97 164 268 0 0 271 407 0 0 483 329 306 0 494 239 262 687 599 0 0 639 416 282 80 0 0 506 237 167 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 208 264 290 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 300 303 584 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 590 208 0 0 318 149 448 0 429 165
2nd at South Park 61 60 77 86 0 0 78 345 0 0 290 188 171 0 357 104 81 490 341 0 0 369 278 122 60 0 0 416 142 61 68 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 237 106 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 63 66 458 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 399 63 0 0 79 61 78 0 270 96
2nd at Townsend 137 67 60 423 0 0 311 469 0 0 546 520 474 0 436 145 232 509 494 0 0 773 549 325 221 0 0 667 367 265 395 0 0 0 0 0 0 319 455 398 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 125 133 742 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 777 241 0 0 291 249 259 0 610 284
5th at Howard 215 300 384 68 0 0 357 530 0 0 179 412 364 0 543 419 359 695 609 0 0 235 474 453 145 0 0 269 161 250 306 0 0 0 0 0 0 234 89 202 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 256 221 347 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 375 402 0 0 455 265 357 0 553 109
Adobe on Almaden 0 0 0 0 84 275 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 701 387 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 229 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 441 452 318 0 0 0 0 0 309 146 182 0 207 358 876 101 0 0 369 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Arena Green / SAP Center 0 0 0 0 305 62 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 526 546 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 403 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 288 875 685 0 0 0 0 0 440 420 153 0 166 624 759 116 0 0 301 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Beale at Market 219 343 417 387 0 0 60 155 0 0 343 122 153 0 115 216 170 303 198 0 0 437 235 149 204 0 0 535 203 88 72 0 0 0 0 0 0 191 316 191 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 499 395 526 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 575 173 0 0 87 94 619 0 222 264
Broadway St at Battery St 351 424 499 555 0 0 195 62 0 0 520 90 129 0 70 340 284 128 101 0 0 961 148 168 357 0 0 652 351 218 221 0 0 0 0 0 0 255 376 316 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 611 599 799 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 738 336 0 0 169 291 885 0 134 411
California Ave Caltrain Station 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 82 1645 0 0 0 628 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1771 0 484 131 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1077 0 0 0 870 911 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 531 0 0
Castro Street and El Camino Real 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 74 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 499 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 201 108 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 654 0 0 0 953 696 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

... (60 rows omitted)

Someone had a very quick trip (271 seconds, or about 4.5 minutes) from 2nd at Folsom to Beale at Market, about five blocks away. There are no bike trips between the 2nd Avenue stations and Adobe on Almaden, because the latter is in a different city.

Drawing Maps

The table stations contains geographical information about each bike station, including latitude, longitude, and a “landmark” which is the name of the city where the station is located.

stations = Table.read_table(path_data + 'station.csv')
stations
station_id name lat long dockcount landmark installation
2 San Jose Diridon Caltrain Station 37.3297 -121.902 27 San Jose 8/6/2013
3 San Jose Civic Center 37.3307 -121.889 15 San Jose 8/5/2013
4 Santa Clara at Almaden 37.334 -121.895 11 San Jose 8/6/2013
5 Adobe on Almaden 37.3314 -121.893 19 San Jose 8/5/2013
6 San Pedro Square 37.3367 -121.894 15 San Jose 8/7/2013
7 Paseo de San Antonio 37.3338 -121.887 15 San Jose 8/7/2013
8 San Salvador at 1st 37.3302 -121.886 15 San Jose 8/5/2013
9 Japantown 37.3487 -121.895 15 San Jose 8/5/2013
10 San Jose City Hall 37.3374 -121.887 15 San Jose 8/6/2013
11 MLK Library 37.3359 -121.886 19 San Jose 8/6/2013

... (60 rows omitted)

We can draw a map of where the stations are located, using Marker.map_table. The function operates on a table, whose columns are (in order) latitude, longitude, and an optional identifier for each point.

Marker.map_table(stations.select('lat', 'long', 'name'))
<iframe srcdoc="<!DOCTYPE html> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet/0.7.3/leaflet.css" /> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet/0.7.3/leaflet.js"></script> <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.11.1/jquery.min.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/css/bootstrap.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/css/bootstrap-theme.min.css"> <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script> <link href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/font-awesome/4.1.0/css/font-awesome.min.css" rel="stylesheet"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://rawgit.com/lvoogdt/Leaflet.awesome-markers/2.0/develop/dist/leaflet.awesome-markers.css"> <script src="https://rawgithub.com/lvoogdt/Leaflet.awesome-markers/2.0/develop/dist/leaflet.awesome-markers.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/MarkerCluster.Default.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/MarkerCluster.css"> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/leaflet.markercluster-src.js"></script> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/leaflet.markercluster.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://birdage.github.io/Leaflet.awesome-markers/dist/leaflet.awesome.rotate.css"> <div class="folium-map" id="folium_80451c4aa9aa4421b55af5563ac50e26" style="width: 960px; height: 500px"></div> " style="width: 960px; height: 500px"; border: none"></iframe>

The map is created using OpenStreetMap, which is an open online mapping system that you can use just as you would use Google Maps or any other online map. Zoom in to San Francisco to see how the stations are distributed. Click on a marker to see which station it is.

You can also represent points on a map by colored circles. Here is such a map of the San Francisco bike stations.

sf = stations.where('landmark', are.equal_to('San Francisco'))
sf_map_data = sf.select('lat', 'long', 'name')
Circle.map_table(sf_map_data, color='green', radius=200)
<iframe srcdoc="<!DOCTYPE html> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet/0.7.3/leaflet.css" /> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet/0.7.3/leaflet.js"></script> <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.11.1/jquery.min.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/css/bootstrap.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/css/bootstrap-theme.min.css"> <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script> <link href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/font-awesome/4.1.0/css/font-awesome.min.css" rel="stylesheet"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://rawgit.com/lvoogdt/Leaflet.awesome-markers/2.0/develop/dist/leaflet.awesome-markers.css"> <script src="https://rawgithub.com/lvoogdt/Leaflet.awesome-markers/2.0/develop/dist/leaflet.awesome-markers.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/MarkerCluster.Default.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/MarkerCluster.css"> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/leaflet.markercluster-src.js"></script> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/leaflet.markercluster.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://birdage.github.io/Leaflet.awesome-markers/dist/leaflet.awesome.rotate.css"> <div class="folium-map" id="folium_7f6d6c3bb2e94fe4ac03cbaf47ea1ecd" style="width: 960px; height: 500px"></div> " style="width: 960px; height: 500px"; border: none"></iframe>

More Informative Maps: An Application of join

The bike stations are located in five different cities in the Bay Area. To distinguish the points by using a different color for each city, let’s start by using group to identify all the cities and assign each one a color.

cities = stations.group('landmark').relabeled('landmark', 'city')
cities
city count
Mountain View 7
Palo Alto 5
Redwood City 7
San Francisco 35
San Jose 16
colors = cities.with_column('color', make_array('blue', 'red', 'green', 'orange', 'purple'))
colors
city count color
Mountain View 7 blue
Palo Alto 5 red
Redwood City 7 green
San Francisco 35 orange
San Jose 16 purple

Now we can join stations and colors by landmark, and then select the columns we need to draw a map.

joined = stations.join('landmark', colors, 'city')
colored = joined.select('lat', 'long', 'name', 'color')
Marker.map_table(colored)
<iframe srcdoc="<!DOCTYPE html> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet/0.7.3/leaflet.css" /> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet/0.7.3/leaflet.js"></script> <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.11.1/jquery.min.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/css/bootstrap.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/css/bootstrap-theme.min.css"> <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script> <link href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/font-awesome/4.1.0/css/font-awesome.min.css" rel="stylesheet"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://rawgit.com/lvoogdt/Leaflet.awesome-markers/2.0/develop/dist/leaflet.awesome-markers.css"> <script src="https://rawgithub.com/lvoogdt/Leaflet.awesome-markers/2.0/develop/dist/leaflet.awesome-markers.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/MarkerCluster.Default.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/MarkerCluster.css"> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/leaflet.markercluster-src.js"></script> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/leaflet.markercluster.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://birdage.github.io/Leaflet.awesome-markers/dist/leaflet.awesome.rotate.css"> <div class="folium-map" id="folium_4c7f7f8e875845f59a8ed5de971afdef" style="width: 960px; height: 500px"></div> " style="width: 960px; height: 500px"; border: none"></iframe>

Now the markers have five different colors for the five different cities.

To see where most of the bike rentals originate, let’s identify the start stations:

starts = commute.group('Start Station').sort('count', descending=True)
starts
Start Station count
San Francisco Caltrain (Townsend at 4th) 25858
San Francisco Caltrain 2 (330 Townsend) 21523
Harry Bridges Plaza (Ferry Building) 15543
Temporary Transbay Terminal (Howard at Beale) 14298
2nd at Townsend 13674
Townsend at 7th 13579
Steuart at Market 13215
Embarcadero at Sansome 12842
Market at 10th 11523
Market at Sansome 11023

... (60 rows omitted)

We can include the geographical data needed to map these stations, by first joining starts with stations:

station_starts = stations.join('name', starts, 'Start Station')
station_starts
name station_id lat long dockcount landmark installation count
2nd at Folsom 62 37.7853 -122.396 19 San Francisco 8/22/2013 7841
2nd at South Park 64 37.7823 -122.393 15 San Francisco 8/22/2013 9274
2nd at Townsend 61 37.7805 -122.39 27 San Francisco 8/22/2013 13674
5th at Howard 57 37.7818 -122.405 15 San Francisco 8/21/2013 7394
Adobe on Almaden 5 37.3314 -121.893 19 San Jose 8/5/2013 522
Arena Green / SAP Center 14 37.3327 -121.9 19 San Jose 8/5/2013 590
Beale at Market 56 37.7923 -122.397 19 San Francisco 8/20/2013 8135
Broadway St at Battery St 82 37.7985 -122.401 15 San Francisco 1/22/2014 7460
California Ave Caltrain Station 36 37.4291 -122.143 15 Palo Alto 8/14/2013 300
Castro Street and El Camino Real 32 37.386 -122.084 11 Mountain View 12/31/2013 1137

... (58 rows omitted)

Now we extract just the data needed for drawing our map, adding a color and an area to each station. The area is 1000 times the count of the number of rentals starting at each station, where the constant 1000 was chosen so that the circles would appear at an appropriate scale on the map.

starts_map_data = station_starts.select('lat', 'long', 'name').with_columns(
    'color', 'blue',
    'area', station_starts.column('count') * 1000
)
starts_map_data.show(3)
Circle.map_table(starts_map_data)
lat long name color area
37.7853 -122.396 2nd at Folsom blue 7841000
37.7823 -122.393 2nd at South Park blue 9274000
37.7805 -122.39 2nd at Townsend blue 13674000

... (65 rows omitted)

<iframe srcdoc="<!DOCTYPE html> <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet/0.7.3/leaflet.css" /> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet/0.7.3/leaflet.js"></script> <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/1.11.1/jquery.min.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/css/bootstrap.min.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/css/bootstrap-theme.min.css"> <script src="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/bootstrap/3.2.0/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script> <link href="https://maxcdn.bootstrapcdn.com/font-awesome/4.1.0/css/font-awesome.min.css" rel="stylesheet"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://rawgit.com/lvoogdt/Leaflet.awesome-markers/2.0/develop/dist/leaflet.awesome-markers.css"> <script src="https://rawgithub.com/lvoogdt/Leaflet.awesome-markers/2.0/develop/dist/leaflet.awesome-markers.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/MarkerCluster.Default.css"> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/MarkerCluster.css"> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/leaflet.markercluster-src.js"></script> <script src="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/leaflet.markercluster/0.4.0/leaflet.markercluster.js"></script> <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://birdage.github.io/Leaflet.awesome-markers/dist/leaflet.awesome.rotate.css"> <div class="folium-map" id="folium_de431ee228834d0bb1bc23197c768fb7" style="width: 960px; height: 500px"></div> " style="width: 960px; height: 500px"; border: none"></iframe>

That huge blob in San Francisco shows that the eastern section of the city is the unrivaled capital of bike rentals in the Bay Area.